Donetsk (Ukrainian: Донецьк Ukrainian pronunciation: [doˈnɛt͡sʲk], translit. Donets’k; Russian: Доне́цк, tr. Donetsk, IPA: [dɐˈnʲet͡sk]; former names: Yuzovka, Stalino, see also: cities' alternative names), is an industrial city officially in eastern Ukraine on the Kalmius River. It is currently claimed by the unrecognised Donetsk People's Republic. Administratively, it is a centre of Donetsk Oblast, while historically, it is the unofficial capital and largest city of the larger economic and cultural Donets Basin (Donbas) region. The city of Donetsk is adjacent to another major city of Makiivka and along with other surrounding cities forms a major urban sprawl and conurbation in the region. Donetsk is a major economic, industrial and scientific centre of Ukraine with a high concentration of companies and a skilled workforce.
The city was founded in 1869 by a Welsh businessman, John Hughes, who constructed a steel plant and several coal mines in the region; the town was thus named Yuzovka (Юзовка) in recognition of his role in its founding ("Yuz" being a Russian or Ukrainian approximation of Hughes). During Soviet times, the city's steel industry was expanded. In 1924 it was renamed Stalino (Сталино), and in 1932 the city became the centre of the Donetsk region. Renamed Donetsk in 1961, the city today remains the centre for Ukraine's coal mining and notable steel industry centre.
On 7 April 2014, Pro-Russian protesters took some administrative buildings and declared that Donetsk is now a People's Republic of Donetsk. The move has been condemned by the central government of Kiev.
Donetsk currently has a population of over 982,000 inhabitants (2010) and has a metropolitan area of over 2,000,000 inhabitants (2011). According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, Donetsk is the fifth-largest city in Ukraine. Donetsk is nicknamed "The City of a Million Roses".
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